Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk for stroke and systemic embolism. There is plausible evidence linking inflammation to the initiation and perpetuation of AF and AF-related thrombosis. Various inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8) have been associated with AF. Proposed mechanisms linking inflammation and the prothrombotic AF state include endothelial activation/damage, production of tissue factor from monocytes, increased platelet activation, and increased expression of fibrinogen. The present review aims to provide an update on the association of inflammation and AF, including the impact of inflammatory markers on clinical presentation and outcome of AF patients.
Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.