Aim: The study aimed to determine whether faecal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration can assist in deciding who with lower abdominal symptoms will benefit from endoscopy.
Method: Faecal Hb concentrations were measured on single samples from 280 patients referred for lower gastrointestinal tract endoscopy from primary care in NHS Tayside who completed a faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for Hb and underwent subsequent endoscopy.
Results: Among 739 invited patients, FIT and endoscopy were completed by 280 (median age 63 (18-84) years; 59.6% women), with a median time between FIT and endoscopy of 9 days. Six (2.1%) participants had cancer, 23 (8.2%) had high-risk adenoma (HRA) (more than three adenomas or any > 1 cm), 31 (11.1%) low-risk adenoma (LRA) and 26 (9.3%) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as the most serious diagnosis. Those with cancer had a median faecal Hb of > 1000 ng Hb/ml buffer. Those with cancer + HRA + IBD had a median faecal Hb concentration of 75 ng Hb/ml buffer (95% CI 18-204), which was significantly higher than that of all remaining participants without significant colorectal disease (P < 0.0001). Using a cut-off faecal Hb concentration of 50 ng Hb/ml buffer, negative predictive values of 100.0%, 94.4%, 93.4% and 93.9% were found for cancer, HRA, LRA and IBD. Patients with reasons for referral other than rectal bleeding and family history did not have high faecal Hb concentrations.
Conclusion: Faecal Hb concentration measurements have considerable potential to contribute to reducing unnecessary endoscopy for the majority of symptomatic patients.
© 2012 The Authors Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.