Background: Bleeding irregularities, such as intermenstrual spotting or heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, are common among copper-containing intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) users and are one of the leading reasons for method discontinuation. This review evaluates the evidence for effective therapeutic and preventive treatments for bleeding irregularities during Cu-IUD use.
Study design: We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012 and were relevant to treatments for irregular bleeding during Cu-IUD use. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence.
Results: From 1470 articles, we identified 17 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from two studies of poor quality demonstrated that antifibrinolytic agents or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been used for intermenstrual bleeding or spotting among a small number of Cu-IUD users with mixed results. Evidence from 10 studies of fair to poor quality suggested that some NSAIDs may significantly reduce menstrual blood loss or bleeding duration among Cu-IUD users with heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding. Antifibrinolytic drugs or antidiuretics may also help reduce blood loss. High-dose aspirin was shown to increase blood loss among those with baseline menorrhagia. Evidence from five studies of fair to poor quality suggested that bleeding irregularities among new Cu-IUD users may be prevented with NSAIDs, although one large study of good quality suggested that prophylactic treatment with ibuprofen does not affect continuation of Cu-IUD use. Evidence from two studies of fair to poor quality suggested that antifibrinolytic agents might be helpful in preventing heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding among new Cu-IUD users.
Conclusions: Limited evidence suggests that NSAIDs may be effective treatments for bleeding irregularities associated with Cu-IUD use; antifibrinolytic agents and antidiuretics have also been studied as possible treatments in a small number of subjects, but their safety has not been well documented. NSAIDs and antifibrinolytics may also prevent bleeding irregularities among new CU-IUD users. Preventive NSAID use, however, does not impact Cu-IUD continuation.
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