The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians

C R Biol. 2012 Oct-Nov;335(10-11):698-707. doi: 10.1016/j.crvi.2012.10.003. Epub 2012 Nov 7.


The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Asia, Southeastern
  • Asian People / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, X / genetics
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Ethnicity / genetics
  • French Guiana
  • Gene Frequency
  • Gene Pool
  • Genetic Variation
  • Haplotypes
  • Human Migration
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / genetics
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Population
  • Tandem Repeat Sequences


  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Immunoglobulin G