Aims: Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) plays an important role in adhesion of monocytes/macrophages to injured tubulointerstitial tissue. The present study aimed to determine if indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, regulates renal expression of ICAM-1.
Main methods: The effect of indoxyl sulfate on expression of ICAM-1 was determined using human proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) and the following animals: (1) Dahl salt-resistant normotensive rats (DN), (2) Dahl salt-resistant normotensive indoxyl sulfate-administered rats (DN+IS), (3) Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats (DH), and (4) Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive indoxyl sulfate-administered rats (DH+IS).
Key findings: DN+IS, DH, and DH+IS rats showed significantly increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in the kidneys compared with DN rats. DH+IS rats showed significantly increased mRNA expression of ICAM-1 in the kidneys compared with DH rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ICAM-1 was localized in the cytoplasm of renal tubular cells, and was most prominently expressed in DH+IS rats. Indoxyl sulfate upregulated mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1 in HK-2 cells. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (diphenylene iodonium chloride), NF-κB (isohelenin) and p53 (pifithrin-α,p-nitro) suppressed indoxyl sulfate-induced expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and protein in HK-2 cells.
Significance: Indoxyl sulfate upregulated renal expression of ICAM-1 through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, and activation of NF-κB and p53 in proximal tubular cells. Further, administration of indoxyl sulfate promoted ICAM-1 expression in rat kidneys. Thus, accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease might be involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial injury through induction of ICAM-1 in the kidney.
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