Emerging opportunities for serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins

Toxins (Basel). 2012 Nov 7;4(11):1196-222. doi: 10.3390/toxins4111196.


Background: Two decades ago, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) type A was introduced to the commercial market. Subsequently, the toxin was approved by the FDA to address several neurological syndromes, involving muscle, nerve, and gland hyperactivity. These syndromes have typically been associated with abnormalities in cholinergic transmission. Despite the multiplicity of botulinal serotypes (designated as types A through G), therapeutic preparations are currently only available for BoNT types A and B. However, other BoNT serotypes are under study for possible clinical use and new clinical indications;

Objective: To review the current research on botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A-G, and to analyze potential applications within basic science and clinical settings;

Conclusions: The increasing understanding of botulinal neurotoxin pathophysiology, including the neurotoxin's effects on specific neuronal populations, will help us in tailoring treatments for specific diagnoses, symptoms and patients. Scientists and clinicians should be aware of the full range of available data involving neurotoxin subtypes A-G.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Botulinum Toxins / chemistry
  • Botulinum Toxins / classification*
  • Botulinum Toxins / genetics
  • Botulinum Toxins / pharmacology
  • Clostridium botulinum / classification*
  • Clostridium botulinum / genetics
  • Clostridium botulinum / metabolism
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Models, Molecular
  • Neurotoxins / chemistry
  • Neurotoxins / classification*
  • Neurotoxins / genetics
  • Neurotoxins / pharmacology
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / chemistry
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / classification*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / genetics
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacology
  • Serotyping


  • Neurotoxins
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Botulinum Toxins