A practical laboratory study simulating the percutaneous lumbar transforaminal epidural injection: training model in fresh cadaveric sheep spine

Turk Neurosurg. 2012;22(6):701-5. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.5899-12.2.


Aim: Laboratory training models are essential for developing and refining treatment skills before the clinical application of surgical and invasive procedures. A simple simulation model is needed for young trainees to learn how to handle instruments, and to perform safe lumbar transforaminal epidural injections. Our aim is to present a model of a fresh cadaveric sheep lumbar spine that simulates the lumbar transforaminal epidural injection.

Material and methods: The material consists of a 2-year-old fresh cadaveric sheep spine. A 4-step approach was designed for lumbar transforaminal epidural injection under C-arm scopy.

Results: For the lumbar transforaminal epidural injection, the fluoroscope was adjusted to get a proper oblique view while the material was stabilized in a prone position. The procedure then begin, using the C-arm guidance scopy.

Conclusion: The model simulates well the steps of standard lumbar transforaminal epidural injections in the human spine. The cadaveric sheep spine represents a good method for training and it simulates fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection procedures performed in the human spine.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Fluoroscopy / methods
  • Humans
  • Injections, Epidural / methods*
  • Injections, Spinal*
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery*
  • Sheep
  • Spine / pathology
  • Spine / surgery*
  • Teaching*