Objective: To compare two bariatric surgical principles with regard to effects on blood pressure and salt intake.
Background: In most patients bariatric surgery induces a sustained weight loss and a reduced cardiovascular risk profile but the long-term effect on blood pressure is uncertain.
Methods: Cohort study with data from the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study involving 480 primary health care centres and 25 surgical departments in Sweden. Obese patients treated with non-surgical methods (Controls, n = 1636 and n = 1132 at 2 y and 10 y follow up, respectively) were compared to patients treated with gastric bypass (GBP, n = 245 and n = 277, respectively) or purely restrictive procedures (vertical banded gastroplasty or gastric banding; VBG/B, n = 1534 and n = 1064, respectively).
Results: At long-term follow-up (median 10 y) GBP was associated with lowered systolic (mean: -5.1 mm Hg) and diastolic pressure (-5.6 mmHg) differing significantly from both VBG/B (-1.5 and -2.1 mmHg, respectively; p<0.001) and Controls (+1.2 and -3.8 mmHg, respectively; p<0.01). Diurnal urinary output was +100 ml (P<0.05) and +170 ml (P<0.001) higher in GBP subjects than in weight-loss matched VBG/B subjects at the 2 y and 10 y follow-ups, respectively. Urinary output was linearly associated with blood pressure only after GBP and these patients consumed approximately 1 g salt per day more at the follow-ups than did VBG/B (P<0.01).
Conclusions: The purely restrictive techniques VBG/B exerted a transient blood pressure lowering effect, whereas gastric bypass was associated with a sustained blood pressure reduction and an increased diuresis. The daily salt consumption was higher after gastric bypass than after restrictive bariatric surgery.