Aim of this paper is to report a systematic review of the literature about the incidence and putative mechanisms of genital tract injuries following open and laparoscopic herniorraphy and their effects on sexual function and fertility and to point out the measures of prevention and of treatment. The most frequently described events have been intraoperative complications as bladder or spermatic cord structure damage, immediate postoperative complications as ischaemic orchitis, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, hydrocele or scrotal haematoma and bacterial orchitis, or long-term complications as chronic orchialgia, testis atrophy, sexual dysfunction and infertility. The evidence of literature shows that urological complication after hernioplasty are under-reported. Only a small number of studies to date have essentially dealt with sexual quality of life after inguinal hernia surgical repair. The sexual needs of patients with groin hernias are rarely discussed. Extensive laparoscopic procedures, due to the need of learning curve, have increased the risk of vas damage and infertility in young patients candidate to hernioplasty. Early diagnosis prevents urological complication as well as possible legal claims after hernia repair: it should be include careful history, objective and subjective symptoms and signs of uro-genital pathologies, lab data when necessary, immediate eco-color-Doppler imaging and urgent urological consultation. Despite the lack of prospective randomized trials, there is a growing evidence in literature about positive impact of hernioplasty on sexual function, encouraging future studies on this issue.