DNA damage, p53, Ki-67 and COX-2 expression in rat tongue cells exposed to nandrolone decanoate

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2013 May;23(4):289-96. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2012.755594. Epub 2013 Jan 16.


The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage, cellular regulatory proteins and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in oral mucosa cells of Wistar rats. A total of 40 rats were distributed into four groups. Two experimental groups were treated with nandrolone decanoate, at 5 mg/kg doses, subcutaneously, three times a week in two periods: 15 and 30 days. The remaining groups received only 0.9% saline subcutaneously, three times a week. To evaluate genetic damage, nandrolone decanoate at 15 mg/kg dose was exposed to 24 h. In the histopathological analysis, no remarkable morphological changes were observed in tongue tissue in all groups. Significant increase in immunoexpression of Ki-67, p53, COX-2 proteins was detected in the groups treated with nandrolone decanoate during 15 and 30 days, when compared to their respective controls. A positive correlation between immunoexpression of p53 and COX-2 protein was detected following nandrolone decanoate exposure. DNA damage was induced by nandrolone decanoate in oral mucosa cells at 15 mg/kg dose. Our results suggest that nandrolone decanoate was able to alter the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, as well as to induce genetic damage and COX-2 immunoexpression in tongue cells of Wistar rats.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anabolic Agents / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Comet Assay
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis*
  • DNA Damage*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Epithelial Cells / drug effects
  • Epithelial Cells / metabolism
  • Epithelial Cells / pathology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis*
  • Male
  • Mouth Mucosa / drug effects
  • Mouth Mucosa / metabolism
  • Mouth Mucosa / pathology
  • Nandrolone / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nandrolone / toxicity
  • Nandrolone Decanoate
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tongue / drug effects*
  • Tongue / enzymology
  • Tongue / metabolism
  • Tongue / pathology
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis*


  • Anabolic Agents
  • Ki-67 Antigen
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
  • Nandrolone
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Ptgs2 protein, rat
  • Nandrolone Decanoate