The objective of this article was to evaluate the impact potential of nandrolone decanoate on DNA damage, cellular regulatory proteins and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in oral mucosa cells of Wistar rats. A total of 40 rats were distributed into four groups. Two experimental groups were treated with nandrolone decanoate, at 5 mg/kg doses, subcutaneously, three times a week in two periods: 15 and 30 days. The remaining groups received only 0.9% saline subcutaneously, three times a week. To evaluate genetic damage, nandrolone decanoate at 15 mg/kg dose was exposed to 24 h. In the histopathological analysis, no remarkable morphological changes were observed in tongue tissue in all groups. Significant increase in immunoexpression of Ki-67, p53, COX-2 proteins was detected in the groups treated with nandrolone decanoate during 15 and 30 days, when compared to their respective controls. A positive correlation between immunoexpression of p53 and COX-2 protein was detected following nandrolone decanoate exposure. DNA damage was induced by nandrolone decanoate in oral mucosa cells at 15 mg/kg dose. Our results suggest that nandrolone decanoate was able to alter the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, as well as to induce genetic damage and COX-2 immunoexpression in tongue cells of Wistar rats.