Generating entangled microwave radiation over two transmission lines

Phys Rev Lett. 2012 Nov 2;109(18):183901. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.183901. Epub 2012 Oct 31.


Using a superconducting circuit, the Josephson mixer, we demonstrate the first experimental realization of spatially separated two-mode squeezed states of microwave light. Driven by a pump tone, a first Josephson mixer generates, out of quantum vacuum, a pair of entangled fields at different frequencies on separate transmission lines. A second mixer, driven by a π-phase shifted copy of the first pump tone, recombines and disentangles the two fields. The resulting output noise level is measured to be lower than for the vacuum state at the input of the second mixer, an unambiguous proof of entanglement. Moreover, the output noise level provides a direct, quantitative measure of entanglement, leading here to the demonstration of 6 Mebit · s(-1) (mega entangled bits per second) generated by the first mixer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electric Conductivity
  • Microwaves*
  • Models, Theoretical*
  • Photometry / instrumentation
  • Photons
  • Quantum Theory
  • Refractometry / instrumentation
  • Vacuum