In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) were associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We also assessed the relationships between IL-1B SNPs and the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC patients. Ninety-three PTC patients and 324 controls were recruited. The patients with PTC were dichotomized and compared with respect to the clinicopathologic characteristics of PTC. Seven SNPs in the IL-1B gene were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing. Four SNPs (rs1143627, rs3136558, rs1143633, and rs1143643) in the IL-1B gene were significantly associated with PTC (p < 0.05). In clinicopathologic features, 3 SNPs (rs1143630, rs1143633, and rs1143643) showed a strong relationship with lymph node metastasis of PTC. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs1143630 and rs1143643 remained significantly associated with lymph node metastasis after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. In haplotype analysis, two linkage disequilibrium blocks (block 1 consisted of rs1143627, rs3917356, and rs1143630; block 2 consisted of rs1143633 and rs1143643) also revealed significant associations with lymph node metastasis. Our results suggest that IL-1B polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of PTC in the Korean population. Especially, IL-1B polymorphisms might be a predictive factor for lymph node metastasis of PTC patients.