The authors determined the incidence of ibuprofen-associated renal impairment and risk factors for its development in 1908 patients treated with ibuprofen using data from a computerized medical records system. Renal impairment occurred in 343 patients (18%). Multivariable analysis revealed six independent predictors of renal impairment: age, prior renal insufficiency, coronary artery disease, male gender, elevated systolic blood pressure, and diuretic use. They then tested the degree to which ibuprofen contributed to the development of renal impairment by evaluating a control group of 3933 acetaminophen recipients. Neither ibuprofen nor acetaminophen was among the independent predictors of risk when all patients were considered (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05; 95% Cl, 0.88-1.26). However, two subsets of at risk patients had an ibuprofen effect: patients greater than or equal to 65 years of age who received ibuprofen were at greater risk of renal impairment as compared to acetaminophen recipients (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% Cl, 1.05 to 1.72) as were patients with coronary artery disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% Cl, 1.38 to 4.68). Their results suggest that elderly patients and patients with coronary artery disease are at risk for ibuprofen-associated renal impairment and therefore should have their renal function monitored when ibuprofen and possibly other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed.