This review analyzes the currently available literature on circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure, and calculated ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Although adequately powered, prospective trials are not available. The existing evidence suggests that high 24-hour IOP and OPP fluctuations can have detrimental effects in eyes with glaucoma. The currently emerging continuous IOP monitoring technologies may soon offer important contributions to the study of IOP rhythms. Once telemetric technologies become validated and widely available for clinical use, they may provide an important tool towards a better understanding of long- and short-term IOP fluctuations during a patient's daily routine. Important issues that need to be investigated further include the identification of appropriate surrogate measures of IOP and OPP fluctuation for patients unable to undergo 24-hour measurements, the determination of formulae that best describe the relationship between systemic blood pressure and IOP with OPP, and the exact clinical relevance of IOP and OPP fluctuation in individual patients. Despite the unanswered questions, a significant body of literature suggests that OPP assessment may be clinically relevant in a significant number of glaucoma patients.
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