Exercise and bone mineral density in men: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Bone. 2013 Mar;53(1):103-11. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2012.11.031. Epub 2012 Dec 4.


Objective: Use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground and/or joint reaction force exercise on femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) in men.

Methods: Randomized controlled exercise trials ≥ 24 weeks were included. Standardized effect sizes (g) were calculated and pooled using random-effects models, z-score alpha values and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I(2). Statistical significance was set at a two-tailed alpha value (p) of ≤ 0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10.

Results: A moderate and statistically significant improvement was found at the FN (3 g's, 187 participants, g=0.583, 95% CI=0.031, 1.135, p=0.04, Q=5.6, p=0.06, I(2)=64%) while a small trend was observed at the LS (5 g's, 275 participants, g=0.190, 95% CI=-0.036, 0.416, p=0.10, Q=3.0, p=0.55, I(2)=0%). Results were sensitive to influence analysis as well as collapsing multiple groups from the same studies so that only one g represented each study.

Conclusions: There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend ground and/or joint reaction force exercise for improving and/or maintaining FN and LS BMD in men. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed before any final recommendations can be formulated.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Bone Density*
  • Exercise*
  • Femur Neck
  • Hip
  • Humans
  • Lumbar Vertebrae
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*