Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) show remarkable phenotypic changes upon direct contact with soluble products (SPs) of Trichuris suis, a pig whipworm that is experimentally used in therapies to ameliorate inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis. These changes may contribute to the observed induction of a T helper 2 (Th2) response and the suppression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced Th1 and Th17 responses by human DCs primed with T. suis SPs. Here it is demonstrated that glycans of T. suis SPs contribute significantly to the suppression of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression in DCs of a broad variety of cytokines and chemokines, including important pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, lymphotoxin α (LTA), C-C Motif Ligand (CCL)2, C-X-C Motif Ligands (CXCL)9 and CXCL10. In addition, the data show that human DCs strongly bind T. suis SP-glycans via the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) mannose receptor (MR) and DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN). The interaction of DCs with T. suis glycans likely involves mannose-type glycans, rather than fucosylated glycans, which differs from DC binding to soluble egg antigens of the human worm parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. In addition, macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL) recognises T. suis SPs, which may contribute to the interaction with immature DCs or other MGL-expressing immune cells such as macrophages. The interaction of T. suis glycans with CLRs of human DCs may be essential for the ability of T. suis to suppress a pro-inflammatory phenotype of human DCs. The finding that the T. suis-induced modulation of human DC function is glycan-mediated is novel and indicates that helminth glycans contribute to the dampening of inflammation in a wide range of human inflammatory diseases.
Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.