Anti-inflammatory properties of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract in an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium: the effect of gastrointestinal digestion

Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Mar;53:94-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.024. Epub 2012 Dec 5.


Enrichment of fruit juices with pine bark extract (PBE) could be a strategy to compensate for phenolic losses during the gastrointestinal digestion. A coculture system with Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages was established as an in vitro model of inflamed human intestinal epithelium for evaluating the anti-inflammatory capacity of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g L(-1)) before and after in vitro digestion. The digestion of both PBE-enriched pineapple and red fruit juice led to significant changes in most of the analysed phenolic compounds. The in vitro inflammatory state showed cell barrier dysfunction and overproduction of IL-8, nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the inflamed cells, incubation with nondigested samples reduced (P<0.05) the production of IL-8 and NO compared with digested samples. ROS production increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested commercial red fruit juice (86.8±1.3%) compared with fresh juice (77.4±0.8%) and increased in the inflamed cells exposed to digested enriched red fruit juice (82.6±1.6%) compared with the fresh enriched juice (55.8±6%). The anti-inflammatory properties of PBE-enriched fruit juices decreased after digestion; further research on the bioavailability of the assayed compounds is needed to properly assess their usefulness for the treatment of gut inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ananas / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Beverages / analysis*
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Digestion / drug effects
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Interleukin-8 / analysis
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Pinus / chemistry*
  • Plant Bark / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Interleukin-8
  • Plant Extracts
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Nitric Oxide