How helminths use excretory secretory fractions to modulate dendritic cells

Virulence. 2012 Nov 15;3(7):668-77. doi: 10.4161/viru.22832. Epub 2012 Nov 15.


It is well known that helminth parasites have immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. They characteristically cause a skew toward T(H)2 immunity, stimulate Treg cells while simultaneously inhibiting T(H)1 and T(H)17 responses. Additionally, they induce eosinophilia and extensive IgE release. The exact mechanism of how the worms achieve this effect have yet to be fully elucidated; however, parasite-derived secretions and their interaction with antigen presenting cells have been centrally implicated. Herein, we will review the effects of helminth excretory-secretory fractions on dendritic cells and discuss how this interaction is crucial in shaping the host response.

Keywords: ES; TLR; Th2; dendritic cell; helminth; parasite.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / parasitology*
  • Helminthiasis / immunology
  • Helminthiasis / parasitology
  • Helminths / immunology*
  • Helminths / pathogenicity*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Factors / immunology
  • Immunologic Factors / metabolism*
  • Virulence Factors / immunology
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism*


  • Immunologic Factors
  • Virulence Factors