Current knowledge and trends in age-related macular degeneration: today's and future treatments

Retina. 2013 Sep;33(8):1487-502. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e318271f265.


Purpose: To address the most dynamic and current issues concerning today's treatment options and promising research efforts regarding treatment for age-related macular degeneration. This review is aimed to serve as a practical reference for more in-depth reviews on the subject.

Methods: An online review of the database PubMed and Ovid were performed, searching for the key words age-related macular degeneration, AMD, VEGF, treatment, PDT, steroids, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, VEGF-trap, radiation, combined therapy, as well as their compound phrases. The search was limited to articles published since 1985. All returned articles were carefully screened, and their references were manually reviewed for additional relevant data. The web page was also accessed in search of relevant research trials.

Results: A total of 363 articles were reviewed, including 64 additional articles extracted from the references. At the end, only 160 references were included in this review.

Conclusion: Treatment for age-related macular degeneration is a very dynamic research field. While current treatments are mainly aimed at blocking vascular endothelial growth factor, future treatments seek to prevent vision loss because of scarring. Promising efforts have been made to address the dry form of the disease, which has lacked effective treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / therapeutic use
  • Bevacizumab
  • Blindness / prevention & control
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Macular Degeneration / drug therapy*
  • Ophthalmology / trends*
  • Ranibizumab
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / therapeutic use
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Vision, Low / prevention & control


  • Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • aflibercept
  • Bevacizumab
  • Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • Ranibizumab