The widely studied SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line provides a classic example of how a cancer cell line can be instrumental for discoveries of broad biological and clinical significance. An important feature of the SH-SY5Y cells is their ability to differentiate into a functionally mature neuronal phenotype. This property has conferred them the potential to be used as an in vitro model for studies of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of the SH-SY5Y cytogenomic profile. Our results advocate for molecular cytogenetic data to inform the use of cancer cell lines in research.