Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) such as neuropathy or myopathy are rare and often severe inherited disorders, affecting muscle and/or nerves with neonatal, childhood or adulthood onset, with considerable burden for the patients, their families and public health systems. Genetic and clinical heterogeneity, unspecific clinical features, unidentified genes and the implication of large and/or several genes requiring complementary methods are the main drawbacks in routine molecular diagnosis, leading to increased turnaround time and delay in the molecular validation of the diagnosis. The application of massively parallel sequencing, also called next generation sequencing, as a routine diagnostic strategy could lead to a rapid screening and fast identification of mutations in rare genetic disorders like NMD. This review aims to summarize and to discuss recent advances in the genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders, and more generally monogenic diseases, fostered by massively parallel sequencing. We remind the challenges and benefit of obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis, introduce the massively parallel sequencing technology and its novel applications in diagnosis of patients, prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection, and discuss the limitations and necessary improvements. Massively parallel sequencing synergizes with clinical and pathological investigations into an integrated diagnosis approach. Clinicians and pathologists are crucial in patient selection and interpretation of data, and persons trained in data management and analysis need to be integrated to the diagnosis pipeline. Massively parallel sequencing for mutation identification is expected to greatly improve diagnosis, genetic counseling and patient management.