Purpose: To determine the contribution of intestinal PepT1 on the permeability and oral absorption of the β-lactam antibiotic drug cefadroxil.
Methods: The effective permeability (P eff ) of cefadroxil was evaluated in wild-type and PepT1 knockout mice following in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions. The plasma concentration-time profiles of cefadroxil were also examined after oral gavage.
Results: The P eff (cm/s) of cefadroxil in wild-type mice was 0.49 × 10(-4) in duodenum, 0.80 × 10(-4) in jejunum, 0.88 × 10(-4) in ileum and 0.064 × 10(-4) in colon. The P eff (cm/s) in PepT1 knockout mice was significantly reduced in small intestine, but not in colon, as shown by values of 0.003 × 10(-4), 0.090 × 10(-4), 0.042 × 10(-4) and 0.032 × 10(-4), respectively. Jejunal uptake of cefadroxil was saturable (Km = 2-4 mM) and significantly attenuated by the sodium-proton exchange inhibitor 5-(N,N-dimethyl)amiloride. Jejunal permeability of cefadroxil was not affected by L-histidine, glycine, cephalothin, p-aminohippurate or N-methylnicotinamide. In contrast, cefadroxil permeability was significantly reduced by glycylproline, glycylsarcosine, or cephalexin. Finally, PepT1 ablation resulted in 23-fold reductions in peak plasma concentrations and 14-fold reductions in systemic exposure of cefadroxil after oral dosing.
Conclusions: The findings are definitive in demonstrating that PepT1 is the major transporter responsible for the small intestinal permeability of cefadroxil as well as its enhanced oral drug performance.