Proinflammatory cytokine response and viral replication in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages infected with influenza H1N1 and H5N1 viruses

PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e51057. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051057. Epub 2012 Nov 30.


The pathogenesis of human influenza H5N1 virus infection remains poorly understood and controversial. Cytokine dysregulation in human infection has been hypothesized to contribute to disease severity. We developed in vitro cultures of mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMΦ) from C57BL/6N mouse to compare influenza A (H5N1 and H1N1) virus replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses. While both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses infected the mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, only the H1N1 virus had showed evidence of productive viral replication from the infected cells. In comparison with human seasonal influenza H1N1 (A/HK/54/98) and mouse adapted influenza H1N1 (A/WSN/33) viruses, the highly pathogenic influenza H5N1 virus (A/HK/483/97) was a more potent inducer of the chemokine, CXCL 10 (IP-10), while there was not a clear differential TNF-α protein expression pattern. Although human influenza viruses rarely cause infection in mice without prior adaption, the use of in vitro cell cultures of primary mouse cells is of interest, especially given the availability of gene-defective (knock-out) mice for specific genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / metabolism*
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / physiology*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / physiology*
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Lectins / metabolism
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Macrophages / pathology
  • Macrophages / virology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / pathology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Viral Load
  • Viral Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Matrix Proteins / metabolism
  • Virus Replication / physiology*


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lectins
  • Viral Matrix Proteins

Grant support

This work was supported by the AoE Funding (AoE/M-12/06) from the Area of Excellence Scheme of the University Grants Committee, Hong Kong SAR Government. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.