The Chloroplast Function Database II: a comprehensive collection of homozygous mutants and their phenotypic/genotypic traits for nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins

Plant Cell Physiol. 2013 Feb;54(2):e2. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcs171. Epub 2012 Dec 10.


The Chloroplast Function Database has so far offered phenotype information on mutants of the nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins in Arabidopsis that pertains to >200 phenotypic data sets that were obtained from 1,722 transposon- or T-DNA-tagged lines. Here, we present the development of the second version of the database, which is named the Chloroplast Function Database II and was redesigned to increase the number of mutant characters and new user-friendly tools for data mining and integration. The upgraded database offers information on genome-wide mutant screens for any visible phenotype against 2,495 tagged lines to create a comprehensive homozygous mutant collection. The collection consists of 147 lines with seedling phenotypes and 185 lines for which we could not obtain homozygotes, as well as 1,740 homozygotes with wild-type phenotypes. Besides providing basic information about primer lists that were used for the PCR genotyping of T-DNA-tagged lines and explanations about the preparation of homozygous mutants and phenotype screening, the database includes access to a link between the gene locus and existing publicly available databases. This gives users access to a combined pool of data, enabling them to gain valuable insights into biological processes. In addition, high-resolution images of plastid morphologies of mutants with seedling-specific chloroplast defects as observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are available in the current database. This database is used to compare the phenotypes of visually identifiable mutants with their plastid ultrastructures and to evaluate their potential significance from characteristic patterns of plastid morphology in vivo. Thus, the Chloroplast Function Database II is a useful and comprehensive information resource that can help researchers to connect individual Arabidopsis genes to plastid functions on the basis of phenotype analysis of our tagged mutant collection. It can be freely accessed at

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / anatomy & histology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / physiology
  • Cell Nucleus / genetics
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Chloroplast Proteins / genetics
  • Chloroplast Proteins / metabolism*
  • Chloroplasts / genetics*
  • Chloroplasts / physiology
  • Chloroplasts / ultrastructure
  • Data Mining
  • Databases, Genetic*
  • Genes, Chloroplast*
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Genetic Loci
  • Genome, Plant
  • Homozygote
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Seedlings / genetics
  • Seedlings / metabolism
  • Software*


  • Chloroplast Proteins