Age- and sex-specific mortality associated with the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Kentucky

J Infect Dis. 2013 Mar 1;207(5):721-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis745. Epub 2012 Dec 10.


Background: The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves.

Methods: Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911-1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex.

Results: The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9-10 years, a maximum at ages 24-26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56-59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females.

Conclusions: The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859-1862, 1892-1894, and 1908-1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918-1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza, Human / mortality*
  • Kentucky / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics*
  • Sex Factors
  • Survival Analysis
  • Young Adult