The Chromosome 16 Consortium forms part of the Human Proteome Project that aims to develop an entire map of the proteins encoded by the human genome following a chromosome-centric strategy (C-HPP) to make progress in the understanding of human biology in health and disease (B/D-HPP). A Spanish consortium of 16 laboratories was organized into five working groups: Protein/Antibody microarrays, protein expression and Peptide Standard, S/MRM, Protein Sequencing, Bioinformatics and Clinical healthcare, and Biobanking. The project is conceived on a multicenter configuration, assuming the standards and integration procedures already available in ProteoRed-ISCIII, which is encompassed within HUPO initiatives. The products of the 870 protein coding genes in chromosome 16 were analyzed in Jurkat T lymphocyte cells, MCF-7 epithelial cells, and the CCD18 fibroblast cell line as it is theoretically expected that most chromosome 16 protein coding genes are expressed in at least one of these. The transcriptome and proteome of these cell lines was studied using gene expression microarray and shotgun proteomics approaches, indicating an ample coverage of chromosome 16. With regard to the B/D section, the main research areas have been adopted and a biobanking initiative has been designed to optimize methods for sample collection, management, and storage under normalized conditions and to define QC standards. The general strategy of the Chr-16 HPP and the current state of the different initiatives are discussed.