In order to understand the appropriate use of potentially probiotic Gram-positive microbes through their introduction in the gut microbiome, it is necessary to understand the influence of individual bacteria on the host-response system at a cellular level. In the present study, we have shown that lipopolysaccharides, flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, potentially probiotic Gram-positive bacteria and yeast interact differently with human intestinal epithelial cells with a custom-designed expression microarray evaluating 17 specific host-response pathways. Only lipopolysaccharides and flagellated Gram-negative bacteria induced inflammatory response, while a subset of Gram-positive microbes had anti-inflammatory potential. The main outcome from the study was the differential regulation of the central mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway by these Gram-positive microbes versus commensal/pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The microarray was efficient to highlight the impact of individual bacteria on the response of intestinal epithelial cells, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validation demonstrated some underestimation for down-regulated genes by the microarray. This immune array will allow us to better understand the mechanisms underlying microbe-induced host immune responses.