Transcriptomic response of immune signalling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharides, Gram-negative bacteria or potentially probiotic microbes

Benef Microbes. 2012 Dec 1;3(4):273-86. doi: 10.3920/BM2012.0027.


In order to understand the appropriate use of potentially probiotic Gram-positive microbes through their introduction in the gut microbiome, it is necessary to understand the influence of individual bacteria on the host-response system at a cellular level. In the present study, we have shown that lipopolysaccharides, flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, potentially probiotic Gram-positive bacteria and yeast interact differently with human intestinal epithelial cells with a custom-designed expression microarray evaluating 17 specific host-response pathways. Only lipopolysaccharides and flagellated Gram-negative bacteria induced inflammatory response, while a subset of Gram-positive microbes had anti-inflammatory potential. The main outcome from the study was the differential regulation of the central mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway by these Gram-positive microbes versus commensal/pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The microarray was efficient to highlight the impact of individual bacteria on the response of intestinal epithelial cells, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validation demonstrated some underestimation for down-regulated genes by the microarray. This immune array will allow us to better understand the mechanisms underlying microbe-induced host immune responses.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Adhesion
  • Bifidobacterium / immunology
  • Down-Regulation
  • Epithelial Cells / immunology*
  • Epithelial Cells / microbiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genome, Human
  • HT29 Cells
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / microbiology
  • Interleukin-9 / immunology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / cytology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology
  • Lactobacillus / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology*
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Probiotics* / metabolism
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Salmonella / immunology*
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transcriptome*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / immunology


  • IL9 protein, human
  • Interleukin-9
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha