Two distinct chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes are associated with high risk of mortality

PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51048. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051048. Epub 2012 Dec 7.


Rationale: In COPD patients, mortality risk is influenced by age, severity of respiratory disease, and comorbidities. With an unbiased statistical approach we sought to identify clusters of COPD patients and to examine their mortality risk.

Methods: Stable COPD subjects (n = 527) were classified using hierarchical cluster analysis of clinical, functional and imaging data. The relevance of this classification was validated using prospective follow-up of mortality.

Results: The most relevant patient classification was that based on three clusters (phenotypes). Phenotype 1 included subjects at very low risk of mortality, who had mild respiratory disease and low rates of comorbidities. Phenotype 2 and 3 were at high risk of mortality. Phenotype 2 included younger subjects with severe airflow limitation, emphysema and hyperinflation, low body mass index, and low rates of cardiovascular comorbidities. Phenotype 3 included older subjects with less severe respiratory disease, but higher rates of obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities. Mortality was associated with the severity of airflow limitation in Phenotype 2 but not in Phenotype 3 subjects, and subjects in Phenotype 2 died at younger age.

Conclusions: We identified three COPD phenotypes, including two phenotypes with high risk of mortality. Subjects within these phenotypes may require different therapeutic interventions to improve their outcome.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenotype*
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / classification*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / genetics
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / mortality*
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate

Grant support

This study was funded by grants from Association Cardif (Paris, France) and Fonds de Recherche en Santé Respiratoire (Paris, France). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.