In developed countries, HEV infection was still recently considered as rare, and as an imported disease from endemic areas by travellers. Hepatitis E virus is now mainly recognized as an autochthonous disease in these countries. Although the sources and the routes of contamination remain uncertain, several cases of foodborne (zoonotic transmission) and blood borne transmission have been recently reported. HEV infection may evolve towards a chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients (mostly in solid organ transplant recipients and patients with HIV) which can evolve to cirrhosis. The mortality rates in industrialized countries seem to be higher than in endemic areas. By contrast, whereas mortality rate reaches 20% during pregnancy in developing countries, no death in pregnant woman secondary to an autochthonous case has been reported so far in developed countries.