Clinical use of allografts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue as a treatment to replace dopaminergic neurons in patients with Parkinson's disease was first done more than 20 years ago. Since then, many patients have received transplants, with variable results. During this time, our knowledge of Parkinson's disease has changed and the nature and extent of problems associated with the disorder have been better defined. Our understanding on how best to implement this cell-replacement strategy for patients has grown, but gaining this insight has entailed critical reappraisal of data from transplant trials that have already been undertaken.
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