The broad-spectrum antiviral functions of IFIT and IFITM proteins

Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Jan;13(1):46-57. doi: 10.1038/nri3344. Epub 2012 Dec 14.


Over the past few years, several groups have identified new genes that are transcriptionally induced downstream of type I interferon (IFN) signalling and that inhibit infection by individual or multiple families of viruses. Among these IFN-stimulated genes with antiviral activity are two genetically and functionally distinct families--the IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT) family and the IFN-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family. This Review focuses on recent advances in identifying the unique mechanisms of action of IFIT and IFITM proteins, which explain their broad-spectrum activity against the replication, spread and pathogenesis of a range of human viruses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Differentiation / genetics
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology*
  • Antiviral Agents / immunology
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Interferon Inducers / immunology
  • Interferons / genetics
  • Interferons / immunology
  • Models, Immunological
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Virus Diseases / immunology*
  • Viruses / immunology
  • Viruses / pathogenicity


  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antiviral Agents
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Interferon Inducers
  • Interferons