Neuronal electrical activity has been known to affect the viability of neurons in the central nervous system. Here we show that long-lasting membrane depolarization induced by elevated extracellular K(+) recruits nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclase/protein kinase G signaling pathway, induces 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP)-mediated protein S-guanylation, and confers dopaminergic neuroprotection. Treatment of primary mesencephalic cell cultures with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) for 72 h decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons, whereas the cell loss was markedly inhibited by elevated extracellular concentration of K(+) (+40 mM). The neuroprotective effect of elevated extracellular K(+) was significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (a Na(+) channel blocker), amlodipine (a voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker), N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), and KT5823 or Rp-8-bromo-β-phenyl-1,N(2)-ethenoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS) (protein kinase G inhibitors). Elevated extracellular K(+) increased 8-nitro-cGMP production resulting in the induction of protein S-guanylation in cells in mesencephalic cultures including dopaminergic neurons. In addition, exogenous application of 8-nitro-cGMP protected dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+) cytotoxicity, which was prevented by zinc protoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Zinc protoporphyrin IX also inhibited the neuroprotective effect of elevated extracellular K(+). On the other hand, KT5823 or Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS did not inhibit the induction of HO-1 protein expression by 8-nitro-cGMP, although these protein kinase G inhibitors abrogated the neuroprotective effect of 8-nitro-cGMP. These results suggest that protein S-guanylation (leading to HO-1 induction) as well as canonical protein kinase G signaling pathway plays an important role in NO-mediated, activity-dependent dopaminergic neuroprotection.
Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.