Anorexigenic postprandial responses of PYY and GLP1 to slow ice cream consumption: preservation in obese adolescents, but not in obese adults

Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Feb 20;168(3):429-36. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0867. Print 2013 Mar.


Objective: Eating slowly increases the postprandial responses of some anorexigenic gut hormones in healthy lean subjects. As the rate of food intake is positively associated with obesity, the aim of the study was to determine whether eating the same meal at different rates evokes different postprandial anorexigenic responses in obese adolescent and adult subjects.

Design and methods: Eighteen obese adolescents and adults were enrolled. A test meal was consumed on two different sessions by each subject, meal duration taking either 5 min (fast feeding) or 30 min (slow feeding). Circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured over 210 min. Visual analog scales were used to evaluate the subjective feelings of hunger and satiety.

Results: fast feeding did not stimulate GLP1 release in obese adolescent and adults, whereas slow feeding increased circulating levels of GLP1 only in obese adolescents. Plasma PYY concentrations increased both in obese adolescents and in adults, irrespective of the eating rate, but slow feeding was more effective in stimulating PYY release in obese adolescents than in adults. simultaneously, slow feeding evoked a higher satiety only in obese adolescents compared with fast feeding but not in obese adults. in obese adolescents, slow feeding decreased hunger (only at 210 min). irrespective of the eating rate, postprandial responses of insulin and triglycerides were higher in obese adults than in obese adolescents.

Conclusion: Slow feeding leads to higher concentrations of anorexigenic gut peptides and favors satiety in obese adolescents, but this physiological control of food intake is lost in obese adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior
  • Adolescent Development
  • Adult
  • Aging*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ice Cream*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Obesity / blood*
  • Peptide YY / blood*
  • Peptide YY / metabolism
  • Postprandial Period
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Satiety Response*
  • Time Factors


  • Peptide YY
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1