Worldwide, rotaviruses have been a significant cause of dehydrating gastroenteritis. This contributed to increased infant morbidity and mortality in Jamaica. We enrolled 1804 Jamaican infants in the international randomized, placebo-controlled, pentavalent (G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1) rotavirus vaccine trial. This pentavalent vaccine was found to significantly reduce rotavirus gastroenteritis attributable emergency room visits and hospitalizations, without increasing the rates of intussusception, or other serious adverse events in Jamaican infants. It is recommended that the rotavirus vaccine be included in Jamaica's National Immunization Programme in accordance with recommendations from the World Health Organization.