Problematic issues in the staging of endometrial, cervical and vulval carcinomas

Histopathology. 2013 Jan;62(1):176-202. doi: 10.1111/his.12058.


The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging of tumours of the uterine corpus, cervix and vulva was revised in 2009. The greatest impact of the revised staging was on carcinomas of the uterine corpus. Uterine sarcomas are now staged separately. Changes to the staging system for vulvar carcinomas largely reflect the significance of lymph node status. Only minor amendments have been introduced for cervical carcinomas, which remain the only gynaecological tumours to be staged clinically. These revisions, based on recent evidence, require careful, more detailed assessment of several histological parameters at each anatomical site. The present review deals with the evidence and rationale underpinning the revisions, and includes practical guidance on tumour staging. This covers the assessment and measurement of myoinvasion and evaluation of cervical, parametrial, serosal and vaginal involvement in carcinomas of the uterine corpus; the identification and accurate measurement of stromal invasion in cervical and vulvar carcinomas; the assessment of unusual variants of carcinoma at each of these sites; and the assessment of lymph node involvement.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / classification
  • Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis*
  • Adenocarcinoma / secondary
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / classification
  • Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Sarcoma / classification
  • Sarcoma / diagnosis*
  • Sarcoma / secondary
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / classification
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Vulvar Neoplasms / classification
  • Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis*