Enhancement of chicken macrophage cytokine response to Salmonella Typhimurium when combined with bacteriophage P22

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013 Feb;339(2):137-44. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12064. Epub 2013 Jan 7.


Salmonella infections are reported as the second most common pathogen caused foodborne disease in the United States, and several Salmonella serovars can colonize in the intestinal tracts of poultry. Reducing Salmonella in poultry is crucial to decrease the incidence of salmonellosis in humans. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of chicken macrophage cells (HD-11) and effects of bacteriophage P22 against the extra- and intracellular S. Typhimurium LT2. Four treatments, (1) HD-11 cells as control, (2) HD-11 cells with LT2, (3) HD-11 cells with LT2 and P22, and (4) HD-11 cells with P22, were administered, and IL-8 responses of HD-11 cells were measured using an ELISA. Also, four cytokine (IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, and IFN-γ) gene expression levels in the presence of LT2 and/or P22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. We found that P22 lysed the extra- and intracellular LT2, which adhered and were taken up by the HD-11 cells. The ELISA indicated that HD-11 cells produced significantly higher IL-8 cytokine levels in the supernatant during the intracellular lyses of LT2 by P22 (P < 0.05). The IL-8 expression levels measured by qRT-PCR also exhibited similar results with the IL-8 production based on ELISA measurements.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteriophage P22 / growth & development*
  • Cell Line
  • Chickens
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism*
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Macrophages / microbiology*
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Salmonella typhimurium / immunology*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / virology*


  • Interleukin-8