Intraosseous venous malformations of the zygoma: clarification of misconceptions regarding diagnosis and management

Ann Plast Surg. 2014 Mar;72(3):323-7. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182605690.


Primary intraosseous venous malformations affecting the zygoma are rare vascular lesions, with only 35 cases reported in the surgical literature. Despite the establishment of the binary classification system, which serves to distinguish vascular tumors from malformations, inappropriate use of the term "hemangioma" to describe a variety of distinct vascular anomalies remains widespread. The authors present 3 cases of zygomatic intraosseous venous malformations and summarize the clinical, radiographic, and immunohistochemical features of these lesions. In each case, an insidious clinical course, combined with the pathognomonic finding of radiating trabeculae on computed tomography, suggests the diagnosis of intraosseous venous malformation. Negative glucose transporter isoform 1 immunoreactivity and histopathological analysis were used to reinforce this diagnosis in 1 patient. Management was individualized in each case, based on symptom complex and aesthetic concern. Given that the therapeutic approach to vascular anomalies is dependent on accurate diagnosis, resolution of semantic matters will optimize the management of these lesions.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Bone Transplantation / methods
  • Female
  • Glucose Transporter Type 1 / genetics
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Vascular Malformations / diagnosis*
  • Vascular Malformations / genetics
  • Vascular Malformations / pathology
  • Vascular Malformations / surgery*
  • Veins / abnormalities*
  • Zygoma / blood supply*
  • Zygoma / pathology
  • Zygoma / surgery


  • Glucose Transporter Type 1