In contrast with many capillary beds, the glomerulus readily supports leukocyte recruitment. However, little is known regarding the actions of leukocytes following their recruitment to glomeruli. We used multiphoton confocal microscopy to examine leukocyte behavior in the glomerular microvasculature. In normal glomeruli, neutrophils and monocytes were retained in capillaries for several minutes, remaining static or migrating intravascularly. Induction of glomerular inflammation resulted in an increase in the duration of retention of static and migratory leukocytes. In response to immune complex deposition, both static and migratory neutrophils generated oxidants in inflamed glomeruli via a Mac-1-dependent mechanism. Our results describe a new paradigm for glomerular inflammation, suggesting that the major effect of acute inflammation is to increase the duration of leukocyte retention in the glomerulus. Moreover, these findings describe a previously unknown form of multicellular intravascular patrolling that involves both monocytes and neutrophils, which may underlie the susceptibility of the glomerulus to inflammation.