Gender disparity in cardiovascular disease: bias or biology?

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2012 Nov;10(11):1401-11. doi: 10.1586/erc.12.133.


This article addresses gender disparity in cardiovascular disease, with selected examples used to explore whether these disparities represent bias, biology or both. Gender-specific basic and clinical cardiovascular research is needed to address these issues, with rigorous application required for the emerging knowledge. These explorations offer promise to improve cardiovascular outcomes for women and are the basis for the application of gender-based evaluation of pathophysiology, clinical presentations, preventive interventions, diagnostic strategies, therapies and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in women.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bias
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy
  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology*
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors