MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs, play a critical role in posttranscriptional gene regulation by acting as adaptors for the miRNA-induced silencing complex to inhibit gene expression by targeting mRNAs for translational repression and/or cleavage. miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p are processed from the B-cell Integration Cluster (BIC) gene (now designated, MIR155 host gene or MIR155HG). MiR-155-5p is highly expressed in both activated B- and T-cells and in monocytes/macrophages. MiR-155-5p is one of the best characterized miRNAs and recent data indicate that miR-155-5p plays a critical role in various physiological and pathological processes such as hematopoietic lineage differentiation, immunity, inflammation, viral infections, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Down syndrome. In this review we summarize the mechanisms by which MIR155HG expression can be regulated. Given that the pathologies mediated by miR-155-5p result from the over-expression of this miRNA it may be possible to therapeutically attenuate miR-155-5p levels in the treatment of several pathological processes.
Keywords: 3T3-L1; 3′-UTR; 3′-untranslated region; AICDA; AML; AP-1; AT(1)R; Ang II; B-CLL; B-cell Integration Cluster; B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; BACH1; BIC; BMDM; BRCA1; BT-549; Burkitt's lymphoma cell line; C/EBPβ; CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β; CCR4-NOT; CFH; CREB; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; ChIP; CpG; Cytosine (phosphodiester bond) Guanine; DG75; DGCR8; DLBCL; DS; Dcp1/2; Down syndrome; Drosha and the DiGeorge critical region 8 protein; E26 transformation-specific; EBNA2; EBV; EBV nuclear antigen 2; ERBB2; ETS1; Epstein–Barr virus; Ets; FADD; FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B; FOXP3; Fas (TNRFSF6)-associated via death domain; FosB; Gene regulation; H2A; H3; H3K4; H3K9; HDACs; HL-60; HOXA9; HSPCs; Hematopoiesis; Hsa21; IFN-β/γ; IKBKE; IL-10; IL17RB; INF-α/β; INPP5D; IRAK3; IRF3; IRFE; ISRE; Immunity; IκBα; JARID2; JNK; JY; Jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2; JunB; K562; KH-type splicing regulatory protein; KHSRP; KSHV; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; LMP1; LPS; MC3; MDV; MEIS1; MIR155HG; MYB; MYD88; Marek's disease virus; MeCP2; Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88; NF-κB; NF-κB inhibitor, alpha; NOD; ORF; PBX; PCCD4; PDCs; PEL; PKC; PMBL; Poly(I:C); Pre-miRNAs; R1699Q; RIG-I; RIPK1; Receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine–threonine kinase 1; SATB1; SKP2; SMAD; SNP; SNP in a miRNA target site; SOCS; SOCS1; SPI1; STAT3; TAB2; TCF12; TGF-β; TGF-β activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2; THP-1; TLR; TNF-α; Toll-like receptor; Tregs; Trisomy 21; Ts21; VM; VSV; ZNF652; a family of small nonprotein-coding RNAs; activation-induced cytidine deaminase; activator protein 1; acute myeloid leukemia; an EBV-immortalized B-cell lymphoblastoid cell line; angiotensin II; angiotensin II type 1 receptor; arginine to glutamine amino acid change at position 1699 in the BRCA1 gene; basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1; bone marrow-derived macrophages; breast cancer 1, early onset; c-Jun N-terminal kinase; cAMP response element-binding; carbon catabolite repressor protein 4-General negative regulator of transcription; ceRNAs; cell line derived from 3T3 cells; chromatin immunoprecipitation; competing endogenous RNAs; complement factor H; complementary “star form” of miRNA strand; decapping enzyme homologs A, B, and 2; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; forkhead box P3; hPBMC; hematopoietic stem–progenitor cells; histone H2A; histone H3; histone deacetylase complexes; homeobox protein; human acute monocytic leukemia cell line; human breast carcinoma cell line; human chromosome 21; human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; human promyelocytic leukemia cell line; immortalized myelogenous erythroleukemia cell line; inhibitor of NF-κB subunit epsilon; inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 145kDa (a.k.a. SHIP1); interferon beta/gamma; interferon regulatory factor 3; interferon regulatory factor element; interferon-alpha/beta; interferon-sensitive response element; interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3; interleukin-10; interleukin-17 receptor B; latent membrane protein 1; lipopolysaccharide; lysine 4 of histone H3; lysine 9 of histone 3; methyl-CpG-binding protein; miR-155 host gene; miR-155*; miR-155-3p; miRISC; miRNA*; miRNA-induced silencing complex; miRNAs; miRSNP; mothers against decapentaplegic homolog; ncRNAs; non-coding RNAs; nuclear factor κB; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein; open reading frame; p53; plasmacytoid dendritic cells; polyriboinosinic: polyribocytidylic acid; pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor; premature miRNAs; pri-miRNAs; primary effusion lymphoma; primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma; primary transcripts of miRNAs; programmed cell death protein 4; protein kinase C; regulatory T-cells; retinoic acid-inducible gene I; s-phase kinase-associated protein 2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; single nucleotide polymorphism; special AT-rich binding protein-1; spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) proviral integration oncogene (a.k.a. PU.1); suppressor of cytokine signaling 1; transcription factor 12; transcription factor Jun-B; transforming growth factor beta; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; tumor protein 53; v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (avian); v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog; vesicular stomatitis virus; viral myocarditis; zinc finger protein 652.
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