A comprehensive summary of LL-37, the factotum human cathelicidin peptide

Cell Immunol. 2012 Nov;280(1):22-35. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2012.11.009. Epub 2012 Nov 29.


Cathelicidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides. Since their discovery, it has become clear that they are an exceptional class of peptides, with some members having pleiotropic effects. Not only do they possess an antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral function, they also show a chemotactic and immunostimulatory/-modulatory effect. Moreover, they are capable of inducing wound healing, angiogenesis and modulating apoptosis. Recent insights even indicate for a role of these peptides in cancer. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent and relevant insights concerning the human cathelicidin LL-37.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / biosynthesis
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / chemistry
  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / physiology*
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunomodulation / physiology
  • Infections / immunology
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Monitoring, Immunologic
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology
  • Protein Conformation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational / physiology
  • Signal Transduction
  • Species Specificity
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Vitamin D / physiology
  • Wound Healing / physiology


  • Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
  • Vitamin D
  • ropocamptide