Background: Much of the emphasis for primary care management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has focused on cardiovascular risk; however, many patients die of other causes. Aim. In order to guide future primary care management of CKD, we report the causes of death from a large U.K. CKD cohort linked to health care administrative data.
Design, setting and methods: The Grampian Laboratory Outcomes Mortality and Morbidity Study (GLOMMS-1) is a community cohort of people with established CKD, identified in 2003 and followed up for 6 years. Causes of death were available from death certificates. The relative likelihood of different causes of death was compared to the general population.
Results: When standardized for age and sex, mortality was 4.7 (95% confidence interval 4.5-4.9) times higher in GLOMMS-1 than the general population. Non-cardiovascular diseases accounted for 1076 (50.9%) of deaths, 3.7 times more common than in the age- and sex-matched general population. For those with stages 3 and 4 CKD, without cardiovascular disease at baseline, a non-cardiovascular cause accounted for almost two-thirds of deaths. In those 75 years and older, dementia and falls were among the main non-cardiovascular causes of death.
Conclusions: Mortality in those with CKD is high, with non-cardiovascular diseases accounting for more than half of all deaths. While there is evidence that intervention may benefit those at risk of cardiovascular death, most of the non-cardiovascular causes of death identified were not readily amenable to prevention. A mechanism to identify which patients may benefit from intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease or renal disease progression is needed.
Keywords: Chronic disease; electronic medical records; medical co-morbidity; primary care; urology..