Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats

Indian J Pharmacol. Nov-Dec 2012;44(6):774-9. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.103300.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats.

Materials and methods: Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done.

Results: Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P<0.05) reduced the striatal level of MDA and GSH in comparison to rotenone group whereas TNF-α production was found to be significantly decreased in PIR group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: VIN and PIR exhibit neuroprotective activity in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism. Hence, these nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: Dopamine; Parkinson's disease; piracetam; rotenone; vinpocetine.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Dopamine / metabolism
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Neuroprotective Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Parkinsonian Disorders / chemically induced
  • Parkinsonian Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Parkinsonian Disorders / metabolism
  • Parkinsonian Disorders / physiopathology
  • Piracetam / administration & dosage*
  • Rats
  • Rotenone
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism
  • Vinca Alkaloids / administration & dosage*

Substances

  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vinca Alkaloids
  • Rotenone
  • Malondialdehyde
  • vinpocetine
  • Glutathione
  • Dopamine
  • Piracetam