Current Concepts in the Management of Adrenal Incidentalomas

Urol Ann. 2012 Sep;4(3):137-44. doi: 10.4103/0974-7796.102657.


Adrenal tumors are among the commonest incidental findings discovered. The increased incidence of diagnosing adrenal incidentalomas is due to the widespread availability and use of noninvasive imaging studies. Extensive research has been conducted to define a cost-effective diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to guide physicians in managing incidental adrenal lesions. However, there is little consensus on the optimal management strategy. Published literature to date, describes a wide spectrum of treatment options ranging from excision of all adrenal lesions regardless of the size and functional status to extensive hormonal and radiological evaluation to avoid surgery. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the presentation, evaluation and management of adrenal incidentalomas. Additionally, we propose a management algorithm to optimally manage these tumors.

Keywords: Adrenal cortex; adrenal medulla; aldosteronomas; carcinoma; incidentalomas; pheochromocytoma.