Disability related to chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of disability and factors associated with disability outcome in 177 CLBP adults. Respondents were recruited from three health care service centers and answered questions from: Demographic Identification Form, Oswestry Disability Index, Chronic Pain Self-efficacy Scale, Tampa Scale Kinesiophobia, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Revised Piper Fatigue Scale. The prevalence of disability among the respondents was 65% (95% CI: 57.5 - 72.0), and disability was moderate to severe in 80.7% of them. The multiple regression model identified three factors as independently associated with disability: work situation, low self-efficacy and depression. The factors identified to be associated with disability are modifiable. Interventions such as work relocation, depression treatment and re-conceptualization of self-efficacy may have an important impact in preventing and reducing disability in chronic low back pain patients.