The interplay between diet, urate transporters and the risk for gout and hyperuricemia: current and future directions

Int J Rheum Dis. 2012 Dec;15(6):499-506. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.12010. Epub 2012 Oct 22.


Diet plays a significant role in the development of gout and hyperuricemia. Gout and hyperuricemia have likewise been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies have shown that certain foods influence levels of serum uric acid and the risk for development of gout.This article reviews the influence of dietary factors on serum uric acid levels and risk of gout, as well as the role of urate transporters in the development of hyperuricemia and gout.Various epidemiological studies have shown the effects of certain foods on the risk of developing gout and hyperuricemia. Low-fat dairy products, purine-rich vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, and less sugary fruits, coffee and vitamin C supplements decrease the risk, whereas intake of red meat, fructose-containing beverages and alcohol increase the risk of gout. There is also an increased although basic understanding of the effects of vitamin C, alcohol and fructose on urate transporters. Certain foods can lead to a decreased or increased risk of development of gout and hyperuricemia. Advances have established the interplay of certain foods on urate transporters and renal handling of urate. More studies, especially prospective ones, are needed to increase our understanding of the roles of foods and urate transporters and other molecular mechanisms on the risk of developing gout and hyperuricemia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Gout / blood
  • Gout / epidemiology*
  • Gout / metabolism
  • Gout / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Hyperuricemia / blood
  • Hyperuricemia / epidemiology*
  • Hyperuricemia / metabolism
  • Hyperuricemia / prevention & control
  • Organic Anion Transporters / metabolism*
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / blood*


  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • Uric Acid