Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC)-related complications using a multicenter case survey.
Method: A prospective cohort study was carried out by 19 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Japan from February 2005 to March 2007. A total of 975 case records were collected. PICC-related complications including pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade pleural effusion/ascites, catheter removal difficulties, catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI), and symptomatic catheter-related thrombosis were collected from case record forms. As for precautions during insertion, institutions were classified into three groups: those with maximum barrier precautions; standard precautions; and no specific precautions.
Results: PICC complications occurred in 27 cases (2.9%) among 946 PICC. The incidence was 1.6% for CR-BSI, and 0.1% for cardiac tamponade. CR-BSI rate per 1000 catheter-days was 1.1 with maximum barrier precautions at catheter insertion, 1.2 with standard precautions, and 1.8 with no specific precautions. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that proximal placement (odds ratio [OR], 3.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-10.60, P = 0.008) and longer placement duration (OR, 1.35; 95%CI: 1.14-1.60, for each week, P = 0.0005) independently contributed to overall complications.
Conclusion: The incidence of cardiac tamponade was rare in this multicenter prospective study. Longer duration and proximal placement may be risk factors for PICC complications. In this cohort, the CR-BSI rate was low irrespective of the degree of barrier precautions at insertion.
© 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.