Purpose: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy. We review the safety of the leukapheresis procedure required for sipuleucel-T preparation and complications related to venous catheter use in the randomized, placebo controlled phase 3 IMPACT (IMmunotherapy for ProstAte Cancer Trial) study (NCT 00065442).
Materials and methods: A total of 512 patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients were scheduled to undergo 3 standard 1.5 to 2.0 blood volume leukapheresis procedures at 2-week intervals. Leukapheresis related adverse events and those related to venous catheter use were reviewed. Immune cell counts were examined throughout the treatment course.
Results: Of 512 enrolled patients 506 underwent 1 or more leukapheresis procedures and were included in this analysis. Adverse events were comparable between the sipuleucel-T and control arms. Leukapheresis related adverse events were primarily associated with transient hypocalcemia (39.3%). Most leukapheresis related adverse events (97%) were of mild/moderate intensity. Median white blood cell count and absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were stable and within normal ranges throughout the treatment course. Of all patients 23.3% had a central venous catheter placed primarily for leukapheresis. Patients with vs without a central venous catheter had a higher risk of infection potentially related to catheter use (11.9% vs 1.3%, p <0.0001) and a trend toward a higher incidence of venous vascular events potentially related to catheter use, excluding the central nervous system (5.9% vs 2.1%, p = 0.06).
Conclusions: Adverse events related to leukapheresis are manageable and quickly reversible. The majority of patients can undergo leukapheresis without a central venous catheter. Central venous catheters are associated with an increased risk of infections and venous vascular events. Peripheral intravenous access should be used when feasible.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00065442.
Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.