Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the incidence, causes, and outcomes of cardiac tamponade in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Background: Use of TAVI is increasing, but the procedure is vulnerable to complications, given the cohort of patients. Cardiac tamponade is a possible complication, and there is a scarcity of data on the incidence and outcomes of cardiac tamponade during TAVI.
Methods: All patients who sustained cardiac tamponade during or post-TAVI between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study.
Results: Of 389 patients who underwent TAVI, 17 (4.3%) had cardiac tamponade. The mean age was 82.3 ± 3.7 years, and most were women (n = 12, 70.6%). Causes of cardiac tamponade were right ventricular perforation by temporary pacemaker (9 patients, 52.9%), annular rupture or aortic dissection (4 patients, 23.5%), and tear in the left ventricular free wall caused by Amplatz stiff wire or catheters (4 patients, 23.5%). Mortality occurred in 4 patients (23.5%), and all had tamponade caused by injury to the high-pressured left-sided circulation (left ventricle and aorta). Most patients (n = 14, 82.4%) sustained cardiac tamponade during the procedure-2 patients (11.7%) within 24 h, and 1 patient after 24 h.
Conclusions: Cardiac tamponade during TAVI is not frequent but is associated with high mortality rates especially when left-sided structures are involved. Meticulous handling of the equipment and improvements in the safety of currently used devices could further reduce the occurrence of this complication.
Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.