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. 2013 Jun;15(6):473-7.
doi: 10.1038/gim.2012.155. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Informatics-based, Highly Accurate, Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing

Free PMC article

Informatics-based, Highly Accurate, Noninvasive Prenatal Paternity Testing

Allison Ryan et al. Genet Med. .
Free PMC article


Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma.

Methods: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males.

Results: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10(-4). For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls.

Conclusion: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy.


Figure 1
Figure 1
The Parental Support method for paternity determination. Paternity test results for two separate women: (a) one with paternity inclusion and (b) one with paternity exclusion. The test statistic distribution is indicated in gray, the region indicating paternity inclusion (alleged fathers with P values <10−4) is indicated in green, the region indicating paternity exclusion (alleged fathers with P values >0.02) is indicated in beige, and the region indicating indeterminate paternity (alleged fathers with P values between 10−4 and 0.02) is indicated in black.

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